03:01 

English

tomate
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1. East or West, home is best. Unusual houses (6-7)
There are many unusual types of homes. You can live in a castle, a tree house or even underground. If an underground home doesnt appeal to you, how about living in the tree tops? Dan Garner, a tree surgeon from Gloucestershire, certainly thinks that this is the way to go up in the world.
When our family became short of space at home our solution was to build a luxury tree house in the garden. The tree house is build into a spruce tree six metres above the ground. It has one main room, a bedroom and a balcony running around two sides. Garner is so happy with this practical extension to his home that he thinks he can convince more people of the benefits of living in the trees. He wants to set up his own enterprise making more of the deluxe tree dwellings, saying, Tree houses are airy, secure and comfortable and the only disadvantage is that they might not be suitable for people who suffer from hay fever or a fear of heights!
Even people who live in more ordinary settings sometimes cant resist doing something to make them stand out from the crowd. One extreme example of this is Bill Heines house in Headington, Oxfordshire. Until one morning in 1986, his house looked much like all the others in his street, when suddenly overnight a 7.5 m long fibreglass shark appeared to have crashed through the roof. The shark was a sculpture by local artist John Buckley. At first some people complained that it might be dangerous or that it spoilt the look of the neighbourhood, but engineers check that the sculpture was safe and the Headington shark has become a well-known and popular landmark. It seems that no matter where you live, you can always do something to make sure your house says something to about who you are.
There many houses for all tastes and if you dont want to live in the normal house you can always get on a tree and have a home there.

1. Renting a flat (p. 8, ex. 4 b)
A: Hello!
: Good morning. Im calling about the flat for sale in Paddington.
A: Oh yes?
: I wonder if you could give me a bit more information, please.
A: Of course. What would you like to know?
: First of all, could you tell me exactly where the flat is situated?
A: Yes, its on 15, Bayswater Drive.
: And the lounge and dining room are they separate?
A: Yes, but theyre joined by a sliding glass door.
: And do all the bedrooms have fitted wardrobes?
A: No, only the two largest bedrooms.
: One last question. Do you have parking near the flat?
A: Yes, sure.
: It sounds perfect. When do you think I could see it?
A: How about 6 oclock this evening?
: Thats fine see you then.

2. Sights of the U.K.
Great Brittan has a lot of ancient places which attract thousands of tourists annually. These tourists sights are mostly castles and historical buildings both in London and all around Britain and Ireland. Id like to dwell upon two castles, with which many myth and legends are connected.
The first castle is called Blarney Castle. You will find Blarney Castle eight kilometres north of the city of Cork, home of the famous Blarney Stone. This stone is traditionally believed to give whoever kisses in the gift of eloquent speech.
Built in 1446 by Dermot McCarthy, King of Munster Blarney Castle has a rich history.
Today it is a very popular tourist attraction although most of it is in ruins. Visitors can also enjoy a walk through the beautiful, well-kept grounds, where they will find the Rock Close. This is a mysterious place with ancient stones and trees that were used by the druids.
The next castle is Dunnottar Castle on Scotland's east coast, 15 miles from the city of Aberdeen. Located on a huge outcrop of flat rock with sheer cliffs on three sides, it's the perfect place for a fortress.
Dunnottar has a long and exciting past. William Wallace, Mary Queen of Scots, King Charles II and the Marquis of Montrose have all played a part in its rich history.
Dunnottar used to be one of the strongest fortresses in Scotland. There are barracks, lodgings, stables and storehouses.
The castle has become a lot more popular in recent years since the site was used as one of the locations for the film "Hamlet" starring Mel Gibson.
As for me, to visit this castles and the UK will be interesting and informative and I hope one day this wish will come true.

2. Buying a house (p. 8, ex. 4 a)
A: Hello!
: Good morning. Im calling about the house advertised for rent in Paddington.
A: Oh yes?
: I wonder if you could give me a bit more information, please.
A: Of course. What would you like to know?
: First of all, could you tell me exactly where the house is situated?
A: Yes, its on 15, Bayswater Drive.
: And the lounge and dining room are they separate?
A: Yes, but theyre joined by a sliding glass door.
: And do all the bedrooms have fitted wardrobes?
A: No, only the two largest bedrooms.
: One last question. Is the garage large enough for two cars?
A: Oh, definitely.
: It sounds perfect. When do you think I could see it?
A: How about 6 oclock this evening?
: Thats fine see you then.

3. Sights of the R.F.
I'd like to tell you about the Hermitage Gallery, one of the largest and well known museums in the world. The State Hermitage is one of the largest and oldest museums of fine arts, culture and history in the world. And, it certainly is the largest museum in Russia. The Hermitage is situated in the northern capital of the country in Saint-Petersburg. It was founded in 1764 by Russian Empress Catherine the Great. She was the person who named her collection Hermitage, which means a place of solitude. At first, it was a small private collection near the Winter Palace and only few chosen people could see it. However, in 1852 The Hermitage was opened to the public and today it occupies five interconnected buildings and two nearby constructions. Its collection comprises more than three million items, including the largest collection of paintings in the world. The museum also has several exhibition centres abroad. The most prominent building in Hermitage is perhaps the Winter Palace, which used to be a former residence of Russian emperors. For the entrance to the museum you need to buy tickets. However, the first Thursday of every month its free for all visitors. The museum is always closed on Mondays. People who admire art will definitely appreciate the vast collection of the museum. Some of its items were preserved from the Stone Age to the present century. Visitors especially like Western European Art, which occupies about 120 rooms. Other valuable collections include Egyptian antiquities, Prehistoric art, Italian and Spanish fine art, Russian art, etc.
Unfortunately, I still didnt have an opportunity to visit this wonderful museum, but I will certainly do it in the near future. Of course, I'd like to point out that no one can see everything during one visit. To enjoy the Hermitage Gallery you must visit it several times. The State Hermitage in St Petersburg is one of the world's most outstanding art museums. It is the largest fine arts museum in Russia.

3. Giving bad news / expressing sympathy (p. 15, ex. 8 c)
- You look very sad. What happened?
- You know I didnt get a flat that I wanted.
- How terrible! What flat did you want?
- Well, it's situated on the second floor right over the supermarket. It's rather spacious and light. All rooms are cozy and nice.
- And why didnt you get it?
- Because I couldnt afford it.
- Oh, that a pity. But I know where you can buy a new flat. Its very comfortable and cheap.
- Are you sure that its exactly cheap?
- Yes, its so cheap that even a poor man can afford it.
- Sounds great! When can I see it?
- Tomorrow I think.

4. Outstanding people of the English-speaking countries (p. 21)
There are a lot of people in the English speaker countries, who can be called outstanding. They made a lot of wonderful inventions and discoveries in different spheres of life. Id like to tell about one of them.
His name is Alexander Graham Bell. He invented the very first telephone. Alexander had been working in the fields of speech, anatomy, electricity and telegraphy for over 11 years. In fact, his whole family had been involved in the study of speech and sounds.
At the age of 16 Alexander started to help teach young deaf mutes; children who could not hear or speak. A few years later, he became so successful that he soon opened his own school called "The School of Vocal Physiology".
He had a student who greatly influenced his life. She was a young girl who had lost her hearing and the ability to speak because of a childhood illness. Her name was Mabel Hubbard, and four years later they got married. Alexander was spending so much time and energy on his inventions he did less and less work with his students and soon ran out of money.
In order to survive financially Bell had to work on the musical telegraph, but he also continued working on his mechanical voice transmitter. On his 29th birthday Alexander Graham Bell registered his invention with the patent office and, because they had never seen anything like it before, they registered his invention as "an improvement in telegraphy". The name "telephone" came later.
I think this is a great person, who, in spite of all difficulties, continued to work on his invention, which would help his wife and other deaf mutes to hear. As a result he invented what we can all hear each other at a distance.

Today almost everyone has a mobile phone and we cant imagine life without it. Modern phone it's not just the distance calls; its a lot of other opportunities as an internet, an organizer, apps, dictionaries, games, instant messaging etc. Using the phone we can even monitor our health and control the various types of equipment. For example with the help of technology Smart TV we connect to the TV. This greatly facilitates our life, but also makes us less mobile. The main disadvantage of mobile phones is damage to the environment and human health.

4. Requesting services (p. 15, ex. 7 a)
- Brown & Sons. How can I help you?
- Hello. My names Ann Smith.
- Hello, Ms. Smith. What can I do for you?
- Ive got a problem with my front door.
- Whats wrong with it?
- Well it doesnt lock properly.
- Ill send someone to look at it right away.
- Thank you, that would be great.
- What is your address, please?
- 21, Market Street.
- Ok. Please wait for our call.
- Ok, thank you.

5. My most unforgettable childhood experience
I have many pleasant memories of my childhood, so many that some of them were obliterated. I took part in various contests and competitions, but the emotions from participation are disposable. True memories can trigger the most sincere emotions, which dont other people understand. You ask what happened, when and where, I cant answer specifically.
I was a kid; it was a normal winter day. I was very cold, even in the very warm fur coat. My parents went ahead and took me in a sledge. For me it was a little trip around the world, which I remembered with my childrens eyes: a little trip through the magical Snowtown. I couldnt even move from cold until we got to a warm room. It was my grandmothers house the most comfortable and safest place on earth. By the time we crossed the threshold I was so happy that I crashed down on the hot floor in the corridor in a fur coat and was long lying without a move.
You ask, what happened in the end, but nothing happened. Its just the first warm memory that arises in my mind.

5. Giving good news / congratulating (p. 29, ex. 6 b)
A: Guess what! I passed my exams.
B: Thats brilliant! Well done.
A: Thank you! It was easy!
B: When is your last term exam?
A: On the 2nd of June. And yours?
B: Mine is on the 5th of June.
A: Thats great! We can then go to the seaside, right?
B: Yes, I cant wait to go with you.
A: Me too. But I have an idea. First of all go to the summer café.
B: Ok, with pleasure. And then go to the disco with my friends.
A: Why not? We must hang out.

5. Ways of expressing future
1. Future Simple (will+V1) expresses:
Spontaneous intentions and decisions (The phone is ringing. Ill answer it);
Predictions based on the speakers opinion (I think, probably);
Promises, warnings, threats (I promise);
Request, offers (Will you help me?);
Inevitable events in the future (He will be two years old next month).
2. to be going to = gonna to expresses:
Plans, but not all things are prepared for realizing. We are not sure (We are going to ski in the Alps);
Predictions based on real facts in the present (Look at those black clouds! Its going to rain).
3. Present Contentions expresses:
Future personal arrangements (They are getting married tomorrow at three).
4. Present Simple: time tables (The train leaves in half an hour).

6. An outdoor venture I will always remember
I have many pleasant memories of my childhood, so many that some of them were obliterated. I took part in various contests and competitions, but the emotions from participation are disposable. True memories can trigger the most sincere emotions, which dont other people understand. You ask what happened, when and where, I cant answer specifically.
I was a kid; it was a normal winter day. I was very cold, even in the very warm fur coat. My parents went ahead and took me in a sledge. For me it was a little trip around the world, which I remembered with my childrens eyes: a little trip through the magical Snowtown. I couldnt even move from cold until we got to a warm room. It was my grandmothers house the most comfortable and safest place on earth. By the time we crossed the threshold I was so happy that I crashed down on the hot floor in the corridor in a fur coat and was long lying without a move.
You ask, what happened in the end, but nothing happened. Its just the first warm memory that arises in my mind.

6. Making a choice and giving reasons (prioritizing) / agreeing, disagreeing (p. 35, ex. 8)
- Hello, how are you doing?
- Hello, Im fine, thank you. And you?
- Im OK. Do you know that I have 2 tickets to Portugal? Would you like to join me? What do you think?
- Thats brilliant! I cant believe you! When are you flying to Portugal?
- Were leaving on the 10th of June.
- Oh, its a great date! I know that they celebrate the Portugal Day.
- You know, its really hot in Portugal at this time of the year. And there are wonderful beaches.
- I heard so. But Im not a fan of swimming and sunbathing. I prefer to spend my time seeing places of interest. And I know that Portugal is full of such places.
- Yes, youre right! What sight would you like to visit?
- I kwon that there is a beautiful palace, the Pena Palace.
- Yes, we will certainly visit it.
- I see. Have you prepared your luggage? Can you advise what I have to take?
- You should take a credit card, a rucksack, a cap, sandals, shots, T-shirts, sunglasses and dont forget about a sunscreen.
- OK. I will look forward to this day.
- Me too.

6. The sequence of tenses
The Sequence of Tenses is observed in the complex sentence with an object clause. If the verb in the main clause is in one of the past tenses, a past or future in the past must be used in the subordinate clause. The action in the subordinate clause may be simultaneous with the action of the main clause, may happen before or after it.
- If the action in the subordinate clause is simultaneous with the action in the main clause, the Past Simple or Past Continuous is used in the subordinate clause.
- If the action in the subordinate clause happened before the action in the main clause, the Past Perfect or Past Perfect Continuous is used in the subordinate clause.
- If the action in the subordinate clause happened after the action in the main clause, one of the Future in the Past is used in the subordinate clause.
When we use the Sequence of Tenses in the reported speech, verb forms in the object clauses are changed in the following way: present becomes past, past becomes past perfect, future becomes future-in-the-past.
Adverbs of time and place are also changed:
Here - there This - that These - those
Now - then, at that moment Today - that day
Yesterday - the day before, the previous day A year ago - a year before Last night - the previous night Tonight - that night
Tomorrow - the following day, the next day The day after tomorrow - two days later In 3 months - 3 months later
1. The main sphere where the Sequence of Tenses is applied is the object clause.
2. If there are several subordinate clauses in a sentence, the rule is observed in all of them: I was sure he would tell her that he was going to the Caucasus.
3. The Sequence of Tenses is not observed if the object clause expresses a general truth or something is represented as habitual, customary or characteristic: The teacher told the children that water boils at 100C. We knew that he plays tennis well.
4. The Sequence of Tenses is mostly observed in adverbial clauses of time and condition but in adverbial clauses of cause and comparison as well as in attributive clauses it is not strictly followed: He was once stronger than he is now. He refused to go to the theatre because he will have an exam in a few days. Yesterday I knew about the problems you are having now.
5. The Past Simple after since generally remains unchanged: She said she had been writing since she came.

7. A celebritys biography
There are many famous people that I admire. Most of them are talented in one or more fields. They lead a busy life, travelling from one place to another to meet their fans. I want to tell you about one of them. This is Johnny Depp. Although he has starred in many interesting movies, his best role was Captain Jack Sparrow in the Pirates of the Caribbean. In my opinion, he is a multi-talented person. Apart from being a famous actor, he is a film producer and a musician. At the moment he is 53 years old, but he doesnt look his age. I would assume he is only 30 or 35. He is a very strong broad-shouldered tall man with thick black hair and long eyelashes. He has eyes like gimlets and plush lips. His face is oval and his cheeks have dimples. He has a pointed chin, arched eyebrows and a straight nose.
He was born in Kentucky, the USA, in a poor background. He started dreaming about the career of a rock star at the age of 12, when his mother bought him a guitar. He then joined various garage bands to come closer to his dream. The first big movie where he starred was Nightmare on Elm Street. His best achievement is the Golden Globe Award. He has a certain style of acting, which distinguishes him from the crowd of other actors. He seems to be a level-headed and reserved person. By the way, acting is not his only passion. He also grows grapes and makes his own wine.
I admire him for the films hes given society and the emotions he portrays in his films.

7. Cancelling a hotel reservation (p. 47, ex. 9 a, b)
- Good afternoon. The Palace Hotel, how can I help you?
- Hello. I made a reservation with you about two weeks ago. My names Vanessa Bryce.
- Just a minute, please. Ah, yes. You reserved a double room for two nights.
- Yes, thats right. Im very sorry but can you cancel it, please?
- Certainly, although you do realize the deposit you paid is non-refundable?
- I thought so. Thats not a problem.
- Can I reserve a new room on the other date?
- Yes, of course.
- How much would it cost?
- 50 f per night.
- Ok. Thats fine. I will reserve it.
- One moment please.

7. Reported Speech
1. Comma and inverted commas are not used.
2. Personal and possessive pronouns are changed.
3. If after the verb say there is an object, say to smb. is changed to tell smb.
4. Affirmative sentences become object clauses. The conjunction that is not obligated.
5. General questions are joined with if, whether.
6. Special questions are added with interrogative pronouns what, who, where, when etc.
7. In questions and reported speech direct words order is used.
8. Orders and requests are added with infinitive (with partial to, negations not to).
9. Exclamatory sentences are used with different words (admire).

agree to inf., demand to inf., offer to inf., promise that/to inf., refuse to inf., threaten to inf., claim that/to, advise sb. to inf., allow sb. to inf., ask sb. to inf., beg sb. to inf., command sb. to inf., encourage sb. to inf., forbid sb. to inf., instruct sb. to inf., invite sb. to, order sb. to, permit sb. to, remind sb. to, warn sb. to, want sb. to, accuse sb. of+ing, apologize for+ing, admit to ing, boast about ing, complain to sb. about ing, deny ing/that, insist on ing, suggest ing, agree that, exclaim that, explain that/to sb.+how, inform sb. that, wonder where/what/why/how+to inf.

8. New sources of energy
Britain is in the middle of a serious energy crisis!
We are in need of a new form of energy which will be capable of generating enough power to carry countrys homes, businesses and industries into the twenty-first century.
But, thats not all!
This new alternative source of energy must also be practical cheap.
This is certainly a tall order!
At the moment, more than 90% of Britains energy needs are met by burning fossil fuels or generated in nuclear power stations.
Unfortunately, these are not renewable sources of energy.
More importantly, these methods of electricity generation are harmful to the environment.
They emit harmful greenhouse gases, which contribute to global warming and climate change.

Wind power is an alternative energy source which has been used for many years in countries like Holland and Denmark.
In fact, today it is the worlds fastest-growing source of energy.
All we need to do is set up some wind farms.
Wind farms are actually arrays of electricity-generating wind turbines, which are tall, slim towers with two or three rotor blades at the top.
The wind turns the blades, which spin a pole.
This pole is connected to a generator, where the electricity is made.
Computers monitor the wind direction and speed, and can shut down the turbines if the wind becomes too strong.
What is more, wind turbines make hardly any noise and they are not unpleasant to look at.
Building wind farms at sea is also possible.
Offshore wind farms also mean that much larger turbines can be built, without objections from the public.
Wind power offers a solution to all our energy problems by being a renewable, clean and safe source of energy which is easy to live and work with.
I think we must safe our environment therefore we must use wind power, but understand why we havent built wind turbines yet, because its very expensive./MORE]

8. Renting a car (p. 47, ex. 10 a)
- Good morning. How can I help you?
- Hello. Id like to hire ( ) a car for the weekend, please.
- Certainly. What type of car would you like? What size are you looking for?
- Well What sizes do you have?
- Compact, medium sizes and SUVs (Sport Utility Vehicle) are available.
- Im travelling with my family: my husband and a little son. I guess a small car for 3 passengers will do. And can I have it in black color?
- Sorry. But the black one has already been booked. So we have small cars in white and silver.
- OK. Silver is fine. How much is it going to cost?
- Well, including the insurance, it will cast f100.
- Thats fine.
- Do you have a driving license and a credit card?
- Of course. Here you are. And my husband is going to drive too because its a long way to go to Madrid. So well take turns in driving. Oh, by the way, is it possible to leave the car in Madrid?
- No, sorry about that. We dont have any offices there.
- All right. What about the fuel?
- The tank is full. And you must return the car with a full tank of fuel too.
- I see. No problem. So how can I pay? And what is a car rental deposit?
- We take credit cards only, so we dont need any cash deposits. Now, please, fill in this form. In case of delays or any problems, please call at this number.
- Now, if you will sign the contact here, Ill get the keys.
- Thanks for your help.

8. Passive Voce
The Passive Voice is formed with the help of the auxiliary to be in the appropriate tense-form and the Past Participle of the main verb.
Tense Formation Example
Present Indefinite am/is/are + Past Participle Cars are repaired.
Past Indefinite was/were + Past Participle The car was repaired.
Future Indefinite will be + Past Participle The car will be repaired.
Present Continuous am/is/are being + Past Participle The car is being repaired.
Past Continuous was/were being + Past Participle The car was being repaired.
Present Perfect have/has been + Past Participle The car has been repaired.
Past Perfect had been + Past Participle The car had been repaired.
Future Perfect will have been + Past Participle The car will have been repaired.
NOTE 1. Present Perfect Continuous, Future Continuous, Past Perfect Continuous are not normally used in the passive.
NOTE 2. Get is used in colloquial English instead of to be to express something happening by accident: He got hurt last Monday. (more usual than He was hurt last Monday).
The Rules of Changing from Active into Passive
a. The object of the active verb becomes the subject in the new sentence.
b. The active verb changes into a passive form and the subject of the active verb becomes the agent.
c. The agent is introduced with by or it is omitted.
Only transitive verbs can be changed into the passive.
The Passive Voice is used:
1. when the agent (the person who does the action) is unknown, unimportant or obvious from the context: The door had been locked. (we dont know who locked it unknown agent) Repairs are being made on the runway. (by the builders obvious agent)
2. when we are interested more in the action than the agent, such as in news reports, formal notices, instructions, processes, headlines, advertisements etc.: The whole area was evacuated. (news report) Breakfast is served from 6.00 to 10.30. (formal notice)
3. to make statements more formal or polite: My new dress has been ruined. (more polite than saying You ruined my dress.)
4. to put emphasis on the agent: The Pyramids were built by the ancient Egyptians.
Prepositions with Passive Verbs
1. They use by + agent to say who or what carries out the action.
2. They use with + instrument/material/ingredient to say what the agent used. The pancakes were made by Claire. They were made with eggs, flour and milk.
The agent is often omitted in the passive sentence when the subject of the active sentence is one of the following words: people, one, someone/somebody, they, he, etc.
Active: Somebody has rearranged the furniture.
Passive: The furniture has been rearranged.
But: The agent is not omitted when it is a specific or important person, or when it is essential to the meaning of the sentence: The Mona Lisa was painted by Leonardo da Vinci. A new law has been passed by the government.

The Passive Voice is possible with intransitive verbs used with prepositions:
to account for, to agree upon, to allude to, to arrive at (a conclusion, agreement, decision), to call for, to call upon, to comment upon(on), to depend on, to deal with, to fire at, to hear of, to hear from, to insist on (upon), to interfere with, to laugh at, to listen to, to look at, to look after, to look for, to look into, to look upon, to look down, to look up to, to mock at, to object to, to provide for, to put up with, to read to, to refer to, to rely on, to run over, to send for, to speak about (of), to shout at, to think highly (well, badly, poorly) of, to talk about (to, over), to wait for, to write to.


Special Passive Constructions. Verbs with two Passive Constructions
Some English verbs in the Active Voice can take two objects, a direct (usually a thing) and indirect one (usually a person).
With verbs which take two objects such as bring, tell, send, show, teach, promise, buy, throw, write, award, hand, sell, owe, grant, allow, feed, pass, post, read, take, offer, give, pay and lend, they can make two different passive sentences. However, it is more usual for passive sentences to begin with the person.
Active Ann showed Rod some photos
Passive a) Rod was shown some photos by Ann. (more usual)
b) Some photos were shown to Rod by Ann. (less usual)
Passive Voice/Causative Form (HAVE SOMETHINGDONE)
We use have + object + past participle to talk about something which we arrange for someone else to do for us: Im having a garage built at the moment.
Compare:
Im building a garage at the moment. (Im building the garage myself)
Im having a garage built at the moment. (I arranged for someone else to do this for me)
We can use have + object + past participle to express accidents or misfortunes. She had her car stolen. (= Her car was stolen.) He had his leg broken. (= His leg was broken.)
Get can be used instead of have in the causative: I had/got my tooth taken out yesterday. (Get is stronger in meaning than have and can be used to suggest difficulty). Get the door repaired, will you? He finally got the seats booked.

@: Studium, English

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