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грамматика английского

tomate
убил лису – сам съел колобка.
1. MODAL VERBS EXPRESSING ABILITY AND PERMISSION
M Vs are used to express the speaker’s attitude towards the action. The action itself is expressed by the Infinitive of the notional verbs, which follows the M V.
1. M Vs lack tense forms & voice distinctions;
2. There is no “-s” in the 3rd person singular;
3. We can’t use them as Infinitives, Gerunds, Participles;
4. We don’t use “to-Infinitives” after them (except “ought to”)
CAN has the past form COULD and the equivalent BE ABLE TO. It can express:
1. physical and mental ability (Can you swim?)
2. possibility due to circumstances (Can you come earlier tomorrow?)
3. permission (Can I come in?)
4. request (Can you help me?)
5. prohibition (You can’t cross the street.)
6. strong doubt and astonishment (Can he know it? It cannot be.)
COULD:
1. could: general ability in the past (Не could read when he was 5.)
2. be able to: someone managed to do sth in a certain situation in the past (Though it was rather dark he was able to read the letter.)
3. couldn’t: for either situation in the negative meaning (He couldn’t 7 read when he was 5.)
4. could: suggestion & request (I could come tonight. Could you..?)
MAY:
1. permission in formal situation (May I come in?)
2. may: 50% of certainty; might 25% – uncertain supposition. “might” also refers to the present in this meaning, but it expresses a higher of uncertainty. (Where are you going in July? – Well, we may (might) go to Spain.)
3. reproach. Only “might” is used to express reproach: might + Perf. – Inf. for the Past. (You might help me, but you don't.)

2. MODAL VERBS EXPRESSING OBLIGATION
M Vs are used to express the speaker’s attitude towards the action. The action itself is expressed by the Infinitive of the notional verbs, which follows the M V.
• M Vs lack tense forms & voice distinctions;
• There is no “-s” in the 3rd person singular;
• We can’t use them as Infinitives, Gerunds, Participles;
• We don’t use “to-Infinitives” after them (except “ought to”)

1. must/had to/will have to: obligation, duty, necessity that the speaker agrees to (It's late, I must go now.)
2. have to/have got to: necessity due to circumstances (I didn’t have to stay there.)
3. have to/need: the absence of necessity (You needn’t learn the rule.)
4. must/be to: command, order, prohibition (You mustn’t leave the room now!)
5. must: urgent request (You must certainly see this film.)
6. must: supposition bordering on assurance (He must be at home.)
7. be to: necessity as a result of an arrangement, plan, timetable (We are to meet the delegation at 7.)
8. should/ought to: advice or mild obligation (You should see a doctor.)

3. MODAL VERBS EXPRESSING SUPPOSITION
M Vs are used to express the speaker’s attitude towards the action. The action itself is expressed by the Infinitive of the notional verbs, which follows the M V.
1. M Vs lack tense forms & voice distinctions;
2. There is no “-s” in the 3rd person singular;
3. We can’t use them as Infinitives, Gerunds, Participles;
4. We don’t use “to-Infinitives” after them (except “ought to”)

WILL: 1) due to the optimal degree of probability (This will be my friend.)
MUST: 2) due to the highest degree of probability based on certain knowledge (He must be there. He is never late.He must have been there.)
SHOULD: 3) due to the highest degree of probability based on general logics (He should have found the park. The bus is to stop in the front of it.)
OUGHT TO: 3) due to the highest degree of probability based on speaker’s convictions (He ought to have bought the flowers. He is a very courteous man.)
MAY: 4) due to lower degree of probability (That may be either John or Jane. They always go together.)
MIGHT: 5) due to lowest degree of probability (He might be at work, although he usually doesn’t because of Saturdays.)

4. THE INFINITIVE AND ITS COMPLEX
NON-FINITE FORMS OF THE VERB (VERBALS): the Infinitive (verb + noun), the Gerund (verb + noun), the Participle (verb + adjective)
Active Indefinite: to write
Active Continuous: to be writing
Active Perfect: to have written
Active Perfect Continuous: to have been writing
Passive Indefinite: to be written
Passive Continuous: -
Passive Perfect: to have been written
Passive Perfect Continuous: -

The tense distinctions of the infinitive are not absolute but relative.
a) The Indef. Infinitive denotes an action simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb:
e.g.: He is said to have five children.
b) The Continuous Infinitive is used to indicate the duration of the action which is going on during the action expressed by the finite verb:
e.g.: He is said to be writing a new book now.
c) The Perfect Infinitive denotes an action prior to that of the finite verb:
e.g.: He is said to have visited Rome last year. She claims to have met Richard Gere.
d) The Perfect Continuous Infinitive is used to indicate the duration of the action which happened before the action of the finite verb.
e.g.: She is tired. She claims to have been working hard lately.

The infinitive without the particle “to” is called the bare infinitive and is used in the following cases:
1) after modal verbs can, could, may, might, should, shall, must
2) after would rather, had better
3) after let, make, see, hear, feel, watch, notice in the Complex Object (but if these verbs are in the Passive, they are followed by the “to-infinitive”)
4) after Why in questions: e.g.: Why pay more? Why not take a holiday?

The Function of the Infinitive in the Sentence
1. A subject (___): e.g.: To live is to learn. To read a lot is to know much.
2. A predicative: e.g.: To live is to learn. To read a lot is to know much.
3. A part of a compound verbal predicate: e.g.: It started to rain. He doesn’t seem to be writing anything now.
4. An object (_ _ _): e.g.: I want you to do it on time. Do you want to go to the lecture?
5. An attribute (\/\/\). e.g.: This is the book to be read on holidays. Who was the last to come?
6. An adverbial modifier (-.-.-). e.g.: My brother went to Oxford to study. He is too lazy to get up early.

Verbs followed by the Infinitive: offer, decide, hope, deserve, attempt, promise, agree, plan, aim, afford, manage, threaten, refuse, arrange, learn, forget, fail, seem, appear, tend, pretend, claim
Verbs followed by a question word (what/whether/how etc.) and the Infinitive: ask, decide, know, remember, forget, explain, learn, understand, wonder
Verbs followed by an object and the Infinitive with “to”: want, ask, help, would like, would love, expect, beg, mean (= intend), would prefer, would hate, tell, remind, force, enable, teach, order, warn, invite, persuade, get (= persuade, arrange for)
Verbs followed by an object and the Infinitive without “to”: make, let, see, hear, feel, smell

INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTIONS
1) The Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction
Its function is a complex object.
The infinitive is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective case.
It is used after verbs:
1. of sense perception
e.g.: I heard him speak in the next room.
Vote: “to see and to hear” may denote mental perception (= to learn, to understand). In this case no infinitive is used. An object clause is used after them instead:
I see (that you don’t understand me).
2. of permission, request, order (to allow, to permit, to let, to suffer, to order, to command, to make, to force)
e.g.: He ordered a taxi to be at the door at nine.
3. of liking and disliking, wish: to want, to wish, to have, to like, to hate: I wish him to come as soon as possible.
I won’t have you do such things.
4. of mental perception: to know, to believe, to understand
e.g.: I knew him to be a clever man.
5. to wait, to listen, to rely + prepositions: I listened to the rain patter on the leaves.

2) The Subjective-with-the-Infinitive Construction
Complex subject.

It doesn’t serve as one part of the sentence: the first element is the subject of the sentence; the second element is part of a compound verbal predicate.
The infinitive is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the nominative case.
It is used after verbs:
1. of permission, request, order: (to order, to command, to make, to force, to allow, to permit):
e.g.: They were requested to be ready by 7.
2. of physical perception: (to hear, to see, to feel):
e.g.: They were seen to leave the house early in the morning.
3. of mental perception: to declare, to deny, to prove, to know, to mean, to believe;
e.g.: He was known to be a capable student.
4. of saying and reporting: to say, to report, to announce, to declare;
e.g.: She is said to be a very good student.
5. to seem, to appear, to prove, to happen, to chance;
e.g.: He proved to be an excellent musician.

3) The for-to-Infinitive Construction
The infinitive is in predicate relation to a noun or a pronoun preceded by the preposition “for”.
Functions:
1. Subject (often with anticipator “it”):
It’s a sham for people to spend so much money this way.
2. Predicative: That was for him to find out. (Выяснить это должен был он)
3. Complex Object: He waited for her to speak.
4. Attribute: There’s nobody here for him to play with.
5. Adverbial modifier
a) of purpose: He stepped aside for me to pass.
b) of result: He spoke loud enough for me to hear.

5. THE GERUND AND ITS COMPLEXES
The gerund is a non-finite form of the verb which combines the features of the verb and the noun
The gerund is formed by adding the suffix –ing to the stem of the verb, and coincides in form with P I.
The Gerund has tense distinctions. The Gerund of transitive verbs has also voice distinctions. The forms of the Gerund in Modern English are as follows:
Active Indefinite: writing
Active Perfect: having written
Passive Indefinite: being written
Passive Perfect: having been written

1. There’s no gerund in the Russian language and the English gerund is rendered in Russian in different ways:
a) By a noun; e.g.: Dancing had not begun yet. (Танцы еще не начались)
b) By an infinitive; e.g.: She had tea with lemon before leaving. (Перед тем как уйти, она выпила чая с лимоном)
c) By adverbial participle деепричастие; e.g.: Without waiting for her answer he turned and left us. (Не дожидаясь ее ответа, он повернулся и вышел)
d) By a subordinate clause; e.g.: He regretted now having come. (Теперь он сожалел, что пришел)

2. The tense distinctions of the gerund are not absolute but relative.
a) The Indef. Gerund denotes an action simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb:
e.g.: He can swim for any number of hours without tiring.
She walked on without turning her head.
b) The Perfect Gerund denotes an action prior to that of the finite verb:
e.g.: She denies having spoken to him.

Note: A prior action is expressed by an Indefinite Gerund after the verbs to remember, to excuse, to forgive, to thank, after the prepositions on (upon), after and without;
e.g.: I don’t remember hearing the legend before.

The Functions of the Gerund in the Sentence
1. A subject (___): e.g.: Talking mends no holes. Rowing is a pleasure.
2. A predicative: e.g.: The only remedy for such a headache as mine is going to bed.
3. A part of a compound verbal predicate: e.g.: It started raining at night.She began sobbing and weeping.
4. An object (_ _ _): e.g.: I simply love riding. She enjoyed singing.
Predicative constructions with the gerund form a complex object as they consist of two elements, nominal and verbal: e.g.: Perhaps, you wouldn’t mind Richard’s coming here?
5. An attribute (\/\/\). In this function the gerund is always preceded by a preposition: e.g.: He was born with the gift of winning hearts.
6. An adverbial modifier (_ . _). In this function the gerund is preceded by a preposition. It is used in the function of:
_ . _ of time (preposition after, before, on (upon), in, at) e.g.: After leaving her umbrella in the hall, she entered the living-room.
_ . _ of manner (preposition ‘by’ or ‘in’) e.g.: The day was spent in packing.
_ . _ of purpose (preposition ‘for’) e.g.: One side of the gallery was used for dancing.
_ . _ of condition (preposition ‘without’) e.g.: He has no right to come bothering you and father without being invited.
_ . _ of cause (preposition ‘for’, ‘for fear of’, ‘owing to’) e.g.: I feel better for having spent a good deal of time abroad.
_ . _ of concession (preposition ‘in spite of’) e.g.: In spite of being busy, he did all he could to help her.

The use of the Gerund
In modern English the gerund often competes with the infinitive.
1. In the following cases only the gerund is used:
• With the following verbs and verbal phrases: to avoid, to burst out, to deny, to enjoy, to excuse, to fancy, to finish, to forgive, to give up, to go on, to keep (on), to leave off, to mind (in negative and interrogative sentence), to postpone, to put off, cannot help, and some others.
e.g: He enjoyed thinking of her as his future wife.
• With the following verbs and verbal phrases used with a preposition: to accuse of, to agree to, to approve of, to complain of, to depend on, to feel like, to insist on, to look like, to object to, to persist in, to prevent from, to rely on, to speak of, to succeed in, to suspect of, to thank for, to think of, to give up the idea of, to look forward to, not to like the idea of, to miss an (the) opportunity of, and some others.
e.g: I don’t feel like going out. They accuse me of having dealt with the Germans. You may rely on my setting matters right. Don’t miss the opportunity of hearing this pianist.
• With the following predicative word-groups (with or without a preposition): to be aware of, to be busy in, to be capable of, to be fond of, to be guilty of, to be indignant at, to be pleased (displeased) at, to be proud of, to be sure of, to be surprised (astonished) at, to be worth (while), and some others.
e.g: She was not pleased at my coming. Their wedding-party was worth seeing.
2. The gerund and the infinitive.
• With a number of verbs and word-groups both the gerund and the infinitive may be used. The most important of them are: to be afraid, to begin, to cease, to continue, can(cannot) afford, to dread, to fear, to forget, to hate, to intend, to like(dislike), to neglect, to prefer, to propose, to remember, to recollect, to start, to stop.
e.g: She continued standing near the piano. She continued to look forhim.
• With the verb “to remember” the infinitive usually refers to the future, and the gerund to the past.
e.g: I remember seeing the book in many bookshops. Remember to buy the book.
• With the verb “to stop” the infinitive and the gerund have different syntactical functions. The gerund forms part of a compound verbal aspect predicate.
e.g: They stopped talking when he came in.
The infinitive has the function an adverbial modifier of purpose.
e.g: She stopped to exchange a few words with a neighbor.
3. The gerund and the Participle.
In most cases the differentiation between the gerund and the participle does not present any difficulty.
Unlike the participle the gerund may be preceded by a preposition, it may be modified by a noun in the possessive case or by a possessive pronoun; it can be used in the function of a subject, object, and predicative. In the function of an attribute and of an adverbial modifier both the gerund and the participle may be used, but the gerund in these function is always preceded by a preposition.

COMPLEXES WITH THE GERUND (PREDICATIVE CONSTRUCTIONS WITH THE GERUND)
In these complexes the gerund is preceded by a noun in the genitive (or common) case or by a possessive pronoun (or personal pronoun in the objective case).
Complex Subject: Our going there won’t help much. It may be introduced by «it». It was no use my trying to reassure her.
Complex Predicative: The main thing is our starting on time.
Complex Object: I’m surprised at your saying all this.
Complex Attribute: What was the reason for your not coming?
Complex Adverbial Modifier: a) of time: I’ll tell you of the results after his ringing me up.
b) of cause: Everything was spoiled because of your being late.
c) of attending circumstances: It was done without our having been informed of it.

6. THE PARTICIPLE AND ITS COMPLEXES
The participle is a non-finite form of the verb which combines the features of the verb and the adjective or adverb.
Participle I
Is formed by adding the suffix –ING to the stem of the verb. Participle I has tense distinctions and voice distinctions.
The functions of Participle I in the sentence:
1. An attribute ( )
e.g. The fence surrounding the garden is newly painted
2. An adverbial modifier ( )
a) of time
e.g. Having reached the classroom, she became the object of many questions
b) of cause
e.g. Having been a little in that line myself, I understood it
c) of manner
e.g. Gwendolen was silent, again looking at her hands
d) of comparison( with the conjunctions as if, as though)
e.g. This was said as if thinking aloud
3. A predicative ( )
e.g. The effect of her words was terrifying
4. A part of a complex object ( )
e.g. I saw that man talking to you on the stairs.
5. A parenthesis
e.g. Generally speaking, I don’t like girls.

Participle II
Is formed by adding the suffix –ED to the stem of regular verbs. Participle II of irregular verbs is formed in different ways and may be found in the third column of the table of irregular verbs.
Participle II has neither tense nor voice distinctions.
Participle II of transitive verbs has a passive meaning, e.g. a broken glass, a caged bird.
The functions of Participle II in the sentence:
1. An attribute
e.g. He answered through the locked door.
2. An adverbial modifier. In this function Participle II is preceded by the conjunctions WHEN, WHILE, IF, AS IF, AS THOUGH, THOUGH, etc.
a) Of time
e.g. When questioned Annie had implied that she worried about her father
b) Of condition
e.g. It was a dreadful thing which is discovered, would bring them into the police court.
c) Of comparison
e.g. He shook his head as though lost it wonder and admiration .
d) Of concession
e.g. Her spirit, though crushed, was not broken
3. A predicative
e.g. In spite of himself, Val was impressed
4. A part of a complex object
e.g. She has found me unaltered; but I have found her changed

The Participle and its Constructions
Predicative Constructions with the Participle
1. It performs the function of an object. That’s why it’s also called Complex Object.
It is used after verbs of:
a) sense perception:
to see, to hear, to feel, to find (e.g.: He saw clouds gathering)
b) mental activity:
to consider, to understand (I consider myself engaged to him)
c) wish (PII only):
Father wants it done quickly
d) to have, to get (PII only): I had my hair cut.

2. The nominative element and the participle are not one part of the sentence:
The 1st element
The 2nd element (compound verbal predicate)
e.g.: They were heard talking together (CVP).
It is used after verbs of sense perception which are in the Passive Voice.

3. The nominative element is expressed by a noun in the Common Case or a pronoun in the Nominative Case. It is always separated with a comma.
This construction can be an adverbial modifier of:
a) of time (The lamp having been lit, she read her son’s letter).
b) of cause (It being now pretty late, we took our candles and went upstairs).
c) of attendant circumstances and manner:
(He turned and went, we following him.)
d) of condition (with participles permitting, failing):
(e.g.: Weather permitting, we’ll start tomorrow.
(Если погода позволит…)

4. It is always separated with a comma and is preceded by “with”.
e.g.: The daughter sat silent, with her eyes fixed on the ground.

Absolute Constructions without a Participle (the 2nd element is an adjective, adverb or a prepositional phrase)
1. The Nominative Absolute Construction
_. a) of time
_._._. b) of attendant circumstances
e.g.: Breakfast over, he went to the library.
There he stood, his face to the south-east … his cap in his hand.
(повернувшись к юго-востоку с шапкой в руке)
2. The Prepositional Absolute Construction
_._._._. of attendant circumstances
e.g.: I found him ready, with his stick in his hand.

THE GERUND
без предлога: to admit, to avoid, to burst out, cannot help, to consider, to deny, to enjoy, to excuse, to fancy, to finish, to forgive, to give up, to go on, to imagine, to involve, to keep on, to mind, to miss, to postpone, to put off, to stop, to suggest
с предлогом: to accuse of, to approve of, to be afraid of, to complain of, to depend on, to feel like, to give up the idea of, to insist on, to look forward to, to object to, to persist in, to prevent from, to rely on, to succeed in, to suspect of, to thank for, to think of

7. CONDITIONALS (4 TYPES)
I тип - реальное условие:
If we send the goods by sea, the transport costs will be lower.
(If Present Simple) [Future Simple]
II тип - нереальное условие, относящееся к настоящему или будущему:
If we sent the goods by sea, the transport costs would be lower.
(If Past Simple) (should/would/could/might + Infinitive (без to)]
III тип - нереальное условие, относящееся к прошлому:
If we had sent the goods by sea, the transport costs would have been lower.
(If Past Perfect) [should/would/could/might + Perfect Infinitive (без to)]

Conditionals are clauses Introduced with If. There are three types of conditional clause: Type 1, Type 2 and Type 3. There is also another common type, Type 0.
Type 0 Conditionals
They are used to express something which is always true. We can use when (= whenever) instead of it.
(It/When the sun shines, snow melts.)

Type 1 Conditionals
They are used to express real or very probable situations in the present or future.
(If he doesn't study hard, he won’t pass his exam.)

Type 2 Conditionals
They are used to express imaginary situations which are contrary to facts in the present and, therefore, are unlikely to happen in the present or future.
(It I won the lottery, I would buy an expensive car and l would go on holiday to a tropical island next summer.)

Type 3 Conditionals
They are used to express imaginary situations which are contrary to facts in the past They are also used to express regrets or criticism.
(John got up late, so he missed the bus. If John hadn't got up late, he wouldn't have missed the bus.)

Type 0 general truth
1) If-clause (hypothesis)
If + present simple
2) Main clause (result)
present simple
3) Use
something which is always true
(If the temperature tails below 0 C, water turns into ice.)

Type 1 real present
1) If + present simple, present cont., present perfect, present perf. cont.
2) future/imperative
can/may/might/must/should/could + bare inf.
3) real - likely to happen in the pres. or future
(If you need help, come and see me.)

Type 2 unreal present
1) if + past simple or past cont.
2) would/could/might + bare (without to) inf.
3) imaginary situation contrary to facts In the present; also used to give advice
(If I had time, I would take up a sport.)

Type З unreal past
1) if + past perf. or past perf. cont.
2) would/could/might + past participle (Perf. Inf.)
3) imaginary situation contrary to facts In the past; also used to express regrets or criticism
(If she had studied harder, she would have passed the test.)

Conditional clauses consist of two parts: the if - clause (hypothesis) and the main clause (result). When the if - clause comes before the main clause, the two clauses are separated with a comma. When the main clause comes before the if - clause, then no comma is necessary.

We do not normally use will, would or should in an if - clause. We can use will or would after if to make a polite request or express insistence or uncertainty (usually with expressions such as / don't know, I doubt, I wonder, etc.).
We can use should after it to talk about something which is possible, but not very likely to happen.
(If the weather is tine tomorrow, we will go.)
We can use unless instead of if…not the if - clause of Type 1 conditionals. The verb is always in the affirmative after unless, e g. Unless you leave now. you'll miss the bus.
We can use were Instead of was for all persons In the If • clause of Type 2 conditionals.
e g. If Rick was were here, we could have a party.
We use if I were you … when we want to give advice.
e.g. If I were you, I wouldn't complain about it.
We can omit if in the if - clause. When if is omitted, should (Type 1), were (Type 2), had (Type 3) and the subject are Inverted. (Should Peter come, tell him to wait. (=If Peter should сотe,...)

@темы: English, Studium

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2017-06-15 в 08:30 

tomate
убил лису – сам съел колобка.
4. THE INFINITIVE AND ITS COMPLEX
Active Indefinite: to write
Active Continuous: to be writing
Active Perfect: to have written
Active Perfect Continuous: to have been writing
Passive Indefinite: to be written
Passive Continuous: -
Passive Perfect: to have been written
Passive Perfect Continuous: -

Verbs followed by the Infinitive: offer, decide, hope, deserve, attempt, promise, agree, plan, aim, afford, manage, threaten, refuse, arrange, learn, forget, fail, seem, appear, tend, pretend, claim
Verbs followed by a question word (what/whether/how etc.) and the Infinitive: ask, decide, know, remember, forget, explain, learn, understand, wonder
Verbs followed by an object and the Infinitive with “to”: want, ask, help, would like, would love, expect, beg, mean (= intend), would prefer, would hate, tell, remind, force, enable, teach, order, warn, invite, persuade, get (= persuade, arrange for)
Verbs followed by an object and the Infinitive without “to”: make, let, see, hear, feel, smell

5. THE GERUND AND ITS COMPLEXES
Active Indefinite: writing
Active Perfect: having written
Passive Indefinite: being written
Passive Perfect: having been written

THE GERUND
без предлога:
to admit, to avoid, to burst out, cannot help, to consider, to deny, to enjoy, to excuse, to fancy, to finish, to forgive, to give up, to go on, to imagine, to involve, to keep on, to mind, to miss, to postpone, to put off, to stop, to suggest
с предлогом: to accuse of, to approve of, to be afraid of, to complain of, to depend on, to feel like, to give up the idea of, to insist on, to look forward to, to object to, to persist in, to prevent from, to rely on, to succeed in, to suspect of, to thank for, to think of

7. CONDITIONALS (4 TYPES)
I тип - реальное условие:
If we send the goods by sea, the transport costs will be lower.
(If Present Simple) [Future Simple]
II тип - нереальное условие, относящееся к настоящему или будущему:
If we sent the goods by sea, the transport costs would be lower.
(If Past Simple) (should/would/could/might + Infinitive (без to)]
III тип - нереальное условие, относящееся к прошлому:
If we had sent the goods by sea, the transport costs would have been lower.
(If Past Perfect) [should/would/could/might + Perfect Infinitive (без to)]

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