11:59 

Экзамен по английскому

tomate
убил лису – сам съел колобка.
TOPICS
1. Unique natural areas of the English-speaking countries

The Rocky Mountains are the largest mountain system in North America. Visitors to the Rockies enjoy sparkling lakes, snow-capped peaks and other spectacular scenery. The region is also famous for its ski resorts and wild game. Some US and Canadian national parks can be found there. Several rivers such as, the Colorado, the Missouri, the Arkansas and others begin in the Rockies.
In the higher areas of the Rockies firs, pines and spruces can be found. Mountain goats, elk, bears, deer, mountain lions, squirrels and other animals live in the Rockies.
The Rockies were formed over 65 million years ago. The sides of the mountains contain fossils of animals which once lived in the sea as well as rocks that were formed in the hot interior of the earth.
Many Indian tribes used to live there when Europeans first arrived in North America. The first Europeans to reach the Rockies were Spanish explorers.
In Russia there are many beautiful places. And I want to tell you about such places in own region.
Zyuratkul is one of the largest eco parks in Russia. It is located in the southern part of Satka district, Chelyabinsk region, 200 km west of the regional center of Chelyabinsk. The park was established in 1993. The national park got its name from the high mountainous lake Zyuratkul, the only one on the western slope of the South Urals.
The park is located on the watershed dividing line: in the south-west the basic water drain line is the river Yuryuzan, in the north-east – the river Malaya Satka and the lake Zyuratkul.
The park boasts of a unique diversity of plants and animals. It is rich in inimitable natural sites, historical, archaeological and hydro technical artifacts. Excursions to this site of the South Urals are arranged all year round. The park has developed hiking and water routes starting in towns and villages where the park possesses tourist bases. All the routes have forest huts.
The national eco park Taganay was established on 5 March 1991. It is located on the area of Zlatoust and Kusa region. Its name originated from Bashkir words “tagan” meaning a support and “ay” meaning the Moon.
Among 29 national parks of Russia Taganay is the 20th according to its area, among the parks of the Ural Federal district it is the second one. Taganay is unique because this rather small area of land has animals and plants typical for the central part of the European Russia. The park has almost untouched precious eco systems – mountain tundra and meadows, sparse woodlands and relict forests.
The nature around the world is rich in its diversity and we can have a good time and enjoy it.

2. Environmental problems: air and water pollution, endangered species
Pollution is a serious problem nowadays. It affects everyone every day. Air pollution is one of the main environmental issues nowadays. There are many reasons behind regularly increasing this air pollution. Most of the air pollution is caused by the automobiles, transport means, industrialization, growing cities, etc. The release of several harmful gases or dangerous elements from such sources is causing the whole atmospheric air pollution. Ozone layer is also getting affected too much by the air pollution.
Water pollution is also a big problem nowadays. Most big cities pour their waste into seas and rivers. Seventy percent of earth is covered by oceans. Oceans are vital to life on the earth. They provide homes for millions of plants and animals, provide people with food and help regulate the climate. For a long time people have not realized the danger of losing this source of food.
It doesn't also seem like our planet a safe place for animals. Thousands of species have become extinct and many more are now endangered. We need to do something fast before it is too late for them.
Firstly, the destruction of threatened animals' habitats should be illegal, with long prison sentences for people who break these laws. This would protect animals and the environments their live in.
Another solution is to promote education about endangered species. If people are aware of the problem, then they will buy fewer products made of materials such as ivory or fur.
Finally, we should create more national parks and conservation areas. This would allow animals to live and breed safely in their natural habitats. As a result, their numbers would increase and species would not die out.
There are many ways to make our world a better place for animals and people. We should preserve the environment. We should not cut trees, use public transportation, avoid spray cans, and so many activities in the favor to reduce the effects of air and water pollution.

3. A journey through the English-speaking countries (Australia)
Australia is a very dry, thinly populated country. Very few coastal areas receive enough rainfall to support a large population. The largest group of Australian people live in two large cities, Sydney and Melbourne. The vast interior is mainly desert or grassland and there are very few settlements. As a whole, the country has a density of six people per square mile.
CLIMATE
The northern third of the Australian continent lies in the tropics and is warm or hot year round. The rest of the country lies south of the tropics and has warm summers and mild cool winters. The rainfall is seasonal in Australia.
In the wet season, heavy downpours and violent storms cause floods. But the droughts that plague the nation are far more serious than any flood. Just about every section of Australia has a drought in the dry season. These droughts cause severe water shortages and cause the need for dramatic conservation laws as well as droughts there are also brush fires.
Rivers in Australia are one of its most vital resources. They supply the cities and towns with the much-needed water. They also supply the farms with irrigation water. Though the rivers are dry most of the year, dams and reservoirs keep water during the dry season.
PEOPLE
Australia has no official language, but the majority of the population speaks English as a first language.
Indigenous Australians, or Aborigines, are the original inhabitants of Australia. They migrated from Africa to Asia. The British also appropriated land and water resources in Australia, and converted rural lands for sheep and cattle grazing.
Australia was originally settled by Great Britain as a prison colony, so now most Australian people are of British ancestry. The immigrants brought all the customs too, such as driving on the left side of the road and their favorite warm drink, tea. They also speak English as the official language with their own Australian terms.

4. Daily routines
’Routine’ is usually seen as a negative term nowadays. We live in a world that is fast becoming a 24-hour society, where everything is open all hours. You can buy groceries at midnight, book your holiday on the Internet at 3am, and do business online at the crack of down.
We have a ’body clock’ that controls our body’s natural rhythms. It tells us when it’s the right time to work, sleep, play, eat. It plays an important part in our physical and psychological well-being. It controls many things including our hormones, temperature, immune functions. If we try to ignore our body clocks, we not only deprive ourselves of much needed rest but we also run the risk of seriously damaging our health.
Ignoring your body clock and changing your body’s natural rhythms can not only make you depressed, it can lead to much more serious health problems. For example, heart disease, fatigue, ulcers, muscular pain, and frequent viral infections can all result from trying to outsmart our body clocks. Altering our patterns of sleeping and walking affects our immune system. While we sleep the body’s repair mechanism are at work; when we are awake natural killer cells circulate around our bodies and cause more damage.
Unfortunately, we were not designed to be members of a 24-hour society. We can't ignore millions of years of evolution and stay up all night and sleep all day. So, next time you think a daily routine is boring and predictable, remember that routine may well save your life in the long run.

5. Early to bed and early to rise
The proverb “Early to bed and early to rise” means if you go to bed early, you can get up early. And if you get up early, you will be able to take more opportunities to earn more. Getting more sleep means that you will be in a healthier state of mind and less stressed. Stress leads to all sorts of disorders. Sleep has a positive impact on the physical health, mental health, and career of people.
People who have enough sleep and wake up early in the morning, will have a healthy body and a rational mind. And they will also be successful in their career.
We must make it a habit to rise early in the morning and go outside for a walk or take some exercise, because early morning air makes us feel, fresh and healthy. If we do all those things in our everyday life, then we will get the morning energy and good health. After a good exercise, we will feel energetic and less tired during the working time. So, this is very important for elderly people who want to keep healthy.
The environment of the early morning makes people feel very fresh and early morning has slow wind which makes breath very fresh. The early morning gives us pure air which is excellent for the development of mind and other functions of the body. Most of the people become some fun out of life and they can enjoy all comforts, when they feel good.

6. Health spots and resorts in Russia and abroad
There is hardly any person who would not like to live a long life staying healthy. For that we need good health, a precious treasure given us by nature. Of course, some people can inherit bad diseases from their parents but there are many opportunities to take care of your own health. Nowadays people have started to realize that good health is very important, much more important than wealth.
There are many resorts and health in Russia and abroad. For example Ainsworth Hot Spring in Canada or Rotorua in New Zealand. I want to tell about them.
Ainsworth Hot Spring
The Selkirk Mountains are famous with its ancient limestone and natural hot springs. The springs have a naturally high mineral content and have long been used for relaxation and therapeutic purposes. The native Indians originally discovered the springs, but now they form part of one of the country’s favorite holiday resorts.
Rotorua
Rotorua is famous as one of the world’s most active volcanic areas. It is filled with bubbling geysers, mud pools and natural hot springs. The springs are famous for their relaxing and pain-relieving qualities. Throughout history, people have visited the area and bathed in the mineral rich hot springs to relieve their aches and pains. They were discovered by a travelling priest. He found that his arthritis was cured after bathing in the waters, and the spring became known as the Priest Spring. The water from the Priest Spring is acidic.
In Russia there are similar places, for example, Kislovodsk. Kislovodsk is a part of the Caucasian Mineral Waters group of resorts, and is the largest and most famous among them. The city is located at a height of 803 meters above the sea level. The city is surrounded by mountains from all sides that protect Kislovodsk from the winds. The alpine herbs growing on the slopes of the mountains clean the air and fill it with freshness. Kislovodsk is unique in its natural characteristics: Summer begins here in early May and ends in late October. Rarely does a day in Kislovodsk pass without sunshine. The city has about 300 sunny days a year.
Russian resorts are among of the best in the world. Russian resort technologies are quite modern, have substantial commercial and export values.

7. Healthy life style
Everybody is talking about a healthy nutrition today. There are many books and TV-shows that try to convince the people to eat more vegetables and to go to the gym. But can these things really improve our quality of life?
Try to start the day with a cup of green tea. Green tea wakes you up and gets you ready for a busy day ahead. You will feel cheerful and active, and at the same time your metabolism will start burning the extra calories. The best time to start exercising is half an hour after you open your eyes.
The next step is to provide yourself with carbohydrates and liquids. This will help to give you the energy you need to get moving. Keep away from unhealthy food like ice cream and chocolate, though! A banana or a kiwi at around eleven will give you all the energy you need. At around noon it’s vital to drink lots of water. Water will help to lessen your appetite as it will fill you up. Experts recommend drinking cold water, as your body will have to use up calories just to warm it up.
Keeping fit and going in for sports is also important for our health. Lack of exercise in our life is a serious problem. In big cities people spend hours sitting in front of computers, TV-sets and other gadgets. We walk less because we mainly use cars and public transport. We certainly don’t have to be professional sportsmen, but we should visit fitness clubs, go jogging, walk much, swim, go cycling or roller-skating or just dance. Doctors say that regular moderate physical activity is necessary for our body because it protects us from strokes and heart diseases, flue and obesity.
We must understand the harm of bad habits for our health. Smoking, drinking or taking drugs mean serious illnesses and even death from lung cancer or liver diseases, for instance. Cigarettes kill about 3 million heavy-smokers every year. Drug addicts die very young. So I think there is no place for bad habits in a healthy way of life.
Taking a proper rest and getting enough sleep, from 8 to 10 hours daily, are also great healthy habits. Sleep is the food for our brain and the rest for our muscles. Moreover we should avoid getting nervous or worried for no reason.
Healthy way of life concerns our body, mind and soul. Healthy people live longer, they are more successful and they enjoy their life. I believe that it’s not difficult at all to follow these simple rules, and they are worth it.
запись создана: 23.06.2017 в 11:55

@темы: English, Studium

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